نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه فردوسی ، مشهد، ایران
2 دانش آموخته دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
3 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه فردوسی، مشهد، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Islamic world is a vast expanse of countries with numerous and diverse populations. Having human population as well as geographical sources of power has caused many crises between different actors in this area. Meanwhile, geopolitical crises are not easily solvable due to their stability and continuity, so they are considered long-term crises and often cause many conflicts and tensions between human and space structures.. This article has been written with the aim of investigating the geopolitical crises of the Islamic world by descriptive-analytical research method and the required information has been collected using the library method and referring to authoritative sources, books or articles. The research findings show that the geopolitical crisis in the Islamic world region is a situation in which the geographical sources of power is considered as the main source of conflict, conflict, etc. between the actors in transnational, national, regional and regional relations. It is universal. In other words, the geopolitical crisis in this region arises when the actors in their transnational, national, regional and global relations differ from each other on one or more geographical sources of power and as a result, compete with each other. Finally, the results show that in general, the geopolitical crises of the Islamic world are due to political relations between the actors and also affect the geographical sources of power.
Keywords: Crisis, Geopolitical Crisis, Islamic World, Relations Between Actors
Islam is the second largest religion in the world in terms of number of followers. The Islamic world is a vast expanse of land whose main shape begins in a rectangular shape from the shores of the Atlantic Ocean and extends to the southwest and northeast of Central Asia, and in total covers most of Asia and Africa and part of Europe. This vast region, which is about 170 degrees west and east longitude and less than 70 degrees north and south latitudes of the planet, covers about 22% of the earth's land and geographical space, and forms the structure. Spatial-geographical is a special feature that distinguishes it from other spatial-geographical structures in the world, such as the structure of Buddhism, Western, etc. The Islamic world is the so-called lands where the majority of its people follow the religion of Islam. The Islamic world now includes a land with a diverse composition in terms of human characteristics and natural contexts and conditions. The religion of Islam before the eleventh century, however, has succeeded; Uniform geography in terms of culture, history and territorial importance in all parts of the world. however, from this century onwards, it was the geopolitical tragedy of the Islamic world; because the lack of unity among Muslims caused divisions, and these divisions gradually became associated with geographical factors and deepened the differences. The Islamic world is currently suffering from various tensions and crises, and we would not be exaggerating if we consider the dominant strategic environment in the Islamic world to be unstable, insecure and unsuitable in terms of sustainable development indicators. A crisis in a geographical area can be rooted in various causes, from some cases and characteristics imposed on that area to some intrinsic features of a geographical area, all and sundry can pave the way for the formation of a crisis in the area to be considered. On this basis, it can be argued that the geopolitics of a region will also lead to a crisis. Considering that the Islamic world covers a large part of the lands that are of strategic, geo-economics, etc. importance, and to some extent, the relations between Islamic countries and the Islamic Republic can be observed and studied in the Islamic world region. It is very important to pay attention to the types of crises in this region. Therefore, studying and rooting out the crises of the Islamic world and recognizing the most important causes and contexts of conflict in the Islamic world at different scales and patterns is an important step in reducing such conflicts and resolving them with a peace-building approach. Therefore, the present study seeks to investigate the geopolitical crises of the Islamic world, which is of greater geopolitical importance and geopolitical crises of many internal and external origins have occurred in this region.
The prevailing paradigm in this research is based on a descriptive perspective in which it describes and analyzes the geopolitical crises in the Islamic world. Therefore, the research method of this article is descriptive-analytical. The required information has been collected using the library method and by referring to authoritative sources, books or articles. This study seeks to explain the geopolitical crises of the Islamic world based on a new approach to geopolitical knowledge. Based on the present study, by presenting a new model, it tries to study and analyze the geopolitical crises of the Islamic world based on two cycles of geopolitical knowledge (sources of geography of power) and (political relations between actors).
The changes and developments that have taken place in recent decades have provided the ground for extensive changes in the field of geopolitical knowledge and in various ways have helped to increase its fields of study in the form of emerging trends. Geopolitics has gained prominence in recent decades. Because, the extensive changes that have taken place in the contemporary world, such as globalization and consequently the dramatic growth of content related to different cultures and religions, as well as increasing inclination to Islam around the world, the level of acting in Islam has been at different levels. In other words, the Islamic world has a prominent geopolitical position due to its strategic location, underground resources, large population and the progress of Islam compared to other religions. However, despite these geographical sources of power, due to the existence of various geopolitical crises among the members of the Islamic world, it has caused a decline in the position and lack of proper use of the geographical capabilities of the Islamic world. The research has tried to analyze the geopolitical crises of the Islamic world with a new approach. Geopolitical crisis is a situation in which the geographical sources of power are the main source of conflict, debate, discord, etc. between the actors in transnational, national, regional and global relations. In other words, a geopolitical crisis arises when actors in their transnational, national, regional, and global relations differ and compete with each other on one or more geographical sources of power. The geopolitical crises in the Islamic world are generally based on two parts: the geographical sources of power and the political relations between the actors. In other words, part of the geopolitical crises of the Islamic world are based on the primary cycle (conflict over ownership or use of geographical sources of power) and overshadow the secondary cycle (relations between actors). Another part of the geopolitical crises of the Islamic world is based on the relations between the actors and based on these relations, the geographical sources of power are affected. Based on the initial cycle of geopolitical knowledge (geographical sources of power), geopolitical crises were classified into four dimensions of recognizing, acquiring, productivity and preserving the geographical sources of power, and for each of them, examples from the Islamic world were given. Also, according to the second cycle of geopolitical knowledge (political relations of actors), geopolitical crises were classified into four dimensions: scale of relations, form of relations, level of power and role-playing of actors and strategies of actors, and for each dimension, examples of the geopolitical crises of the Islamic world were brought. In general, the results showed that the geopolitical crises of the Islamic world are due to political relations between the actors and also affect the geographical sources of power.