نقش دیپلماسی آب و نهادهای آبی بین المللی در حل‌وفصل منازعات در حوضه‌ی آبریز بین‌المللی نیل

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته‌ی دکتری روابط بین‌الملل دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران و پژوهشگر موسسه آینده ‌پژوهی جهان اسلام، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه روابط بین الملل دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران

3 استاد گروه روابط بین الملل دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران

4 گروه روابط بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

آب اغلب به‌عنوان یک منبع استراتژیک کلیدی کنار تهدیدات امنیت جهانی مورد تأکید قرار می‌گیرد. ماهیت سیال آب و عبور آن از مرزهای ملی علاوه بر همکاری؛ زمینه تنش، منازعه و گاه جنگ بین دولت‌ها را فراهم می‌نماید.منابع آب‌ فرامرزی با توجه به اهمیت آن در تمام جهان نیازمند توجه بیشتر از سوی محافل سیاسی و دیپلماتیک است. ازاین‌رو، مدیریت آب‌های فرامرزی مسئله‌ای محوری در سیاست جهانی و سیاست خارجی کشورها به شمار می‌رود. در پژوهش حاضر به نقش دیپلماسی آب در حل‌وفصل منازعات آبی بین‌المللی نیل پرداخته شده است. سؤال اصلی آن است که دیپلماسی آب در حل‌وفصل منازعات بین‌المللی حوضه‌ی رود نیل چه نقشی ایفا کرده است؟ در پاسخ، این فرضیه مطرح شده است که دیپلماسی آب با افزایش همکاری‌ها در نهادهای آبی و موافقتنامه‌های بین‌المللی در حوضه‌ی آبی نیل به حل‌وفصل مسالمت‌آمیز منازعات کمک کرده است. برای بررسی فرضیه یاد شده از روش تحلیلی- توصیفی و نرم‌افزارSPSS با چارچوب مفهومی دیپلماسی آب استفاده شده است. یافته‌های پژوهش و تجزیه و تحلیل آن با بررسی رویدادهای حوضه‌ی آبریز بین‌المللی نیل نشان می‌دهد دیپلماسی آب در چارچوب سیاست خارجی هوشمند می‌تواند برای مقابله با تهدیدات پیش‌رو مانند تهدیدات زیست‌محیطی، تغییر اقلیم و کمبود آب به توسعه همکاری‌های دو و چندجانبه درباره‌ آب‌های فرامرزی یاری رساند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Water Diplomacy and International Water Institutions in Conflicts settlement in the Basin International Nile

نویسندگان [English]

  • Robabe Javadi 1
  • Mohammadvali Modarres 2
  • Arsalan Ghorbani Sheikh Nashin 3
  • Farideh Mohammad Alipour 4
1 Ph.D. graduate in International Relations, Kharazmi University and Researcher at Institute of Islamic world Futures studies, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, Kharazmi University, Tehran
3 Professor, Department of International Relations, Kharazmi University, Tehran
4 Dep. International Relations, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

1.Introduction
Water resources in the international river basin, both surface and groundwater, are of vital importance to the countries located in that basin. The natural flow of water and its crossing national borders may lead to cooperation; however, it can also cause tensions, conflicts and sometimes wars between states. Due to its importance all over of the world, transboundary water resources need more attention from political and diplomatic circles. Therefore, transboundary water management is a central issue in world and foreign policy. The present study investigates water diplomacy role in settlement of the Nile international water dispute.
2.Research purpose
This article aims at promoting cooperation and resolving disputes in international basins. The main question is what role has water diplomacy played in resolving international disputes in the Nile Basin.
It is hypothesized that water diplomacy has contributed to the peaceful resolution of disputes by increasing cooperation with water institutions and international agreements in the basin.
3.Methodology
A descriptive-analytical method is adopted to examine this hypothesis with the conceptual framework of water diplomacy. In addition, SPSS statistical software is used.
4.Finding
Based on the data taken from the website http://gis.nacse.org/tfdd/treaties.php, we dealt with water issues and related issues in order to analyze the events related to the Nile Basin and the treaties and international organizations (RBO). The findings of the study, which are concluded by analyzing the events of the Nile International Basin, show that water diplomacy in the context of smart foreign policy can address bilateral threats such as environmental threats, climate change and water supplies scarcity to develop bilateral and multilateral transboundary cooperation. Another finding of the study is that most of the tensions in the Nile Basin are of the type 10 tension, i.e. intense verbal conflicts such as severe  condemnation of actions or policies; condemnation of leaders, their systems or ideologies; postponing meetings of state leaders; refusals to attend meetings or summits, severe propaganda attacks, lack of support; blocking or vetoing policies or proposals that are specified in the United Nations or other international bodies. However, more hostile tensions are also seen in the form of hostile political and economic actions among the countries of the basin.
 
5.Conclusion
According to what was stated in these papers, it can be concluded that water diplomacy by using diplomatic tools and appealing to institutions and organizations in the river basin has been able to help reduce conflicts in the Nile Basin, but the success of these institutions in resolving the problems and the chapter on the Nile Basin cannot be overstated. We saw that in 1989 and 1990 the number of tensions increased and it can be concluded that the increase in tensions and their continuation led to a decrease in the number of international institutions and agreements for the settlement of conflicts in 2002, which in result led to the formation of eleven institutions, and this made the conflicts reduce until 2004, but due to the lack of cooperation of some countries, especially Egypt, we saw an increase in the conflicts in this basin in 2005. On the other hand, the cooperative approach of countries has been effective in reducing and avoiding conflicts in the basin. For example, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya have had more participations in institutions than other countries, and therefore they are considering participations in international organizations and treaties. This countries  have less tensions and conflicts, but Egypt has had more water tensions than other countries due to the lack of a cooperative approach. In short, the management and governance of transboundary waters poses significant challenges and opportunities for foreign policy makers and diplomatic agents to prevent conflicts and seize opportunities, including the development of regional cooperation. In relation to the decrease in water quality, socio-economic development of communities and increasing demand for fresh water, the necessity of the two issues of conflict prevention and the development of regional cooperation is constantly increasing. Environmental change is likely to exacerbate current socio-political disputes over water and intensify them in the future. This will be especially noticeable in areas that do not have the requisite institutions to develop regional cooperation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water Diplomacy
  • Dispute Settlement
  • Water conflicts
  • international water institutions
  • Nile International Basin
  1. Araqchi, Seyyed Abbas (2015). Cross-border water diplomacy and the inter- national system: lessons for the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Tehran: Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  2. Bilis, John; Smith, Steve (2004). The Globalization of Politics: International Rel-ations in the New Age,Translated by Abolghasem Rah-e Chamani and Others, Volume 2, First Edition, Abrar Moaser Publishing, Tehran.[In Persian]
  3. Biswas, A K (2000). Water for urban areas of the developing world in the twenty-first century in Uitto J I and Biswas a K eds Water for urban areas: challenges and perspectives.
  4. Bokova, Irina; Henk, Ovink (2016). The Multitrack Water Diplomacy Framew- orkA Legal and Political Economy Analysis for Advancing Coope- ration over Shared Waters. Project:MakingWaterCooperationWork
  5. Carius, A (2006). Environmental Cooperation as an Instrument of Crisis Prevention and Peacebuilding: Conditions for Success and Constraints. 1st ed.[pdf] Available at: http://userpage.fuberlin. de/ffu/akumwelt/bc2006/pap- ers/Car- ius_Peacemaking.pdf [Accessed 12 May 2014].
  6. Hefny, M (2011). Water Diplomacy: A Tool for Enhancing Water Peace and Sustainability in the Arab Region. Presented in preparation for the Second Arab Water Forum Theme 3: Sustainable and Fair Solutions for the Trans-Boundary Rivers and Groundwater Aquifers. Available at: http://www. Une- sco.org/new/file.admin/MULTIMEDIA/FIELD/Cairo/Water%20Diplomacy%20in%20Action%20Strategy%20Doc%203%20Rev%202%20Final%20.
  7. Http://gis.nacse.org/tfdd/treaties.php.
  8. Https://transboundarywaters.science.oregonstate.edu/.
  9. Kliot, Nurit; Deborah, Shmueli; Uri, Shamir (2001). Development of institu- tional frameworks for the management of transboundary water resources.
  10. Milon, Jw. D; Lynne, Gary; Wilson, Michael. E (2007). Identifying and Measu-ring Potential Conflict in Water Institutions, JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 26(4):669 - 676 · June 2007.
  11. Mohammad Alipour, Farideh (2017) Rights of non-shipping uses of internatio-nal waterways; Case study of Iranian border and common rivers. Tehran: Mizan Publishing. [In Persian]
  12. Molnar,Kata; Cuppari, Rosa; Schmeier, Susanne; Siegfried, Demuth (2017). Prev- enting Conflicts, Fostering Cooperation–The many Roles of Water Diplomacy, Published by:UNESCO‘s International Centre for Water Cooperation (ICWC) at SIWI, Stockholm, Sweden and the UNESCO‘s International Centre for Water Resources and Global Change (ICWRGC), Koblenz, Germany, pp.33-37.
  13. Pohl, Benjamin; Carius, Alexander; Conca, Ken; Dabelko, Geoffrey; Kramer, Annika; Michel, David; Schmeier, Sussane; Swain, Ashok; Wolf, Aaron (2014). The rise of hydro-diplomacy: strengthening foreign policy for transboundary waters, Berlin: adelphi.
  14. Rees, Gerdy (2010). The Role of Power and Institutions in Hydro diplomacy: Does Realism or Neo-Liberal Institutionalism offer a stronger theoretical basis for analysing inter-state cooperation over water security.
  15. Sadoff, C.W; Grey D (2005). Cooperation on international rivers: a conti- nuum for securing and sharing benefits. IWRA, Water International, Volume 30, Number 4, December 2005. Washington, DC: World Bank. Available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWRD/Resources/0509_Continuum_WI.pdf.
  16. Shinkovskaia, Anna (2014). The Role of Water Management in Peacemak- ing in the Middle East: case study of the Good Water Neighbors project. Ma- ster thesis in Sustainable Development at Uppsala University, No. 211, PP30-31. ECTS/ hp.
  17. Shuval, Hillel; Dweik, Hassan (2007). Water Resources in the Middle East, Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York
  18. Stockholm International Water Institute (2013). World Water Week in Stockholm 2013Water Cooperation–Building Partnerships: 2013 Overarch- ing Conclusions, Stockholm International Water Institute.
  19. Uitto, Juha; Duda, Alfred M (2002).  Management of Transboundary Water Resources: Lessons from International Cooperation for Conflict Prevention, The Geographical Journal, Vol.168, No. 4, December 2002, pp. 365–378.
  20. UNESCO (2012). UNESCO makes the case for water diplomacy United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. [Online] Available at: news/unesco_makes_the_case_for_water_diplomacy/#. U8EqJ- RYpyBs.
  21. UNITAR, UNESCO-IHE, University of East Anglia (2013). Introduction to Water Diplomacy.Module1: Water resources and their potential for con- flict.Hooker,J.ed,UNITAR.
  22. United Nations University Press, Tokyo 1–23.
  23. Wingqvist, Gunilla Ölund; Nilsson, Åke (2015). Effectiveness of River Basin Organisations – an institutional review of three African RBOs.
  24. Wolf, Aaron T (2007). Shared Waters: Conflict and Cooperation. The Ann- ual Review of Environment and Resourcesis online at http://environ.annua- lreview- s.org.
  25. World Bank (1997). Fostering Riparian Cooperation in International River Basins: The World Bank at Its Best in Development Diplomacy,Washin- gton: The World Bank.
  26. Zarif, Mohammad Javad; Sajjadpour; Seyyed Mohammad Kazem (2012). Multilateral diplomacy; Conceptual and functional dynamics of regional and international organizations.Tehran: Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[In Persian]