مطالعه تطبیقی گروه های تروریستی القاعده و داعش

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو گروه علوم سیاسی دانشگاه مازندران

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه مازندران

چکیده

بنیادگرایی اسلامی در سه دهه اخیر به یکی از جدی‌ترین تهدیدات در عرصه نظام بین‌الملل تبدیل شده است. بگونه ای که نه تنها امنیت منطقه را با مخاطره مواجه ساخته است، بلکه امنیت بین المللی را نیز دستخوش چالش جدی کرده است. به عبارت دیگر، امروزه تهدیدات تروریستی جریان های افراط گرا محدود به کشورهای منطقه غرب آسیا، که مهد بنیادگرایی اسلامی است، نمی شود بلکه سایر مناطق جهان، از اروپا گرفته تا شرق آسیا، همگی در دایره عملکرد تروریستی گروه های رادیکال قرار دارند. در همین ارتباط، القاعده و داعش از جمله مهمترین کنشگران تروریستی محسوب می شوند که نقش مهمی در تحول مفهوم امنیت و پویایی آن در سال های اخیر داشته اند. هدف پژوهش حاضر مطالعه مقایسه ای این گروه ها می باشد. بر همین اساس، سوال اصلی بر این مبنا قرار گرفته است که وجوه تشابه و افتراق گروه های القاعده و داعش کدامند؟ روش تحقیق توصیفی – تحلیلی است و داده ها از طریق منابع کتابخانه ای جمع آوری شده است. با توجه به ماهیت گروه های تروریستی فوق الذکر، از رهیافت نظری سازه انگاری که بر غیریت سازی و انگاره « خود - دیگری» تاکید دارد استفاده شده است. یافته های پژوهش مبین این واقعیت است که گروه های تروریستی القاعده و داعش علیرغم برخی تشابهات هویتی در بسیاری از زمینه ها بویژه در ساختار، اهداف، حوزه کارکردی، شیوه عملکرد، کیفیت رهبری، ابزارها از تفاوت های آشکاری با یکدیگر برخوردارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of Al-Qaeda and ISIS Groups

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Ekhtiari Amiri 1
  • Morteza Alavian 1
  • Alame Vali Nataj 2
1 Member of Political Science department of University of Mazandaran
2 Master of IR, University of Mazandaran
چکیده [English]

Islamic fundamentalism has turned to one of the serious threats in the international system during last three decades. It, not only, has endangered regional security but also challenged international security seriously. In other words, at the present, terrorism threats of radical groups are not limited only to the West of Asia, which is origin of Islamic fundamentalism, they also include other regions of the world; from Europe to the East Asia. In this regards, Al-Qaeda and ISIS are the most important terrorist actors that have significant role in development of the security concept and its dynamics. The research aim is to study these groups comparatively. Accordingly, the main question of the research is that what are the similarities and differences of the Al-Qaeda and ISIS? The research method is analytical –descriptive and the data gathered through library resources. With regard to the nature of these groups, the research has utilized constructivism theory which emphasis on self-other idea. The findings show that despite of some identical similarities, Al-Qaeda and ISIS enjoy obvious differences in many aspects especially in structure, goals, functional area, method of action, quality of leaders and means.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Al-qadea
  • ISIS
  • Middle East
  • constructivism
  • terrorism
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