راهبرد امنیت ملی اسرائیل در مواجهه با تهدیدهای محیط پیرامونی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه خاورمیانه، دانشکده مطالعات جهان دانشگاه تهران،تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین الملل، دانشگاه گیلان، گیلان، ایران

چکیده

وضعیت عدم‌ قطعیت سبب شده است معمای امنیت همچنان عنصر ذاتی و بنیادین سیاست بین‌الملل به‌شمار رود و بازیگران را در فضای تهدید و نوعی نظام ترس نسبت به اصل بقا و خودیاری خود نگه دارد. در طول بیش از هفتاد سال از عمر دولت اسرائیل شاهد بوده‌ایم که اسرائیل با چالش‌های راهبردی و امنیتی گوناگونی مواجه بوده است. همچنان نیز تهدیدهای جدی در سطح بالا علیه موجودیت این بازیگر وجود دارد. در این مقاله به‌دنبال پاسخ این پرسش هستیم که ارزیابی اسرائیل از تهدیدهای چندوجهی چگونه است و در مرحلۀ بعد چه پاسخ‌هایی را برای این نوع از خطرها در نظر گرفته است. با توجه به واقع‌گرایی تدافعی این فرضیه را مطرح می‌کنیم که مسئلۀ بقا و امنیت همچنان اساسی‌ترین نگرانی راهبرد امنیت ملی اسرائیل است و با توجه به بیشینه‌شدن تهدیدهای ساختاری در سطح محیط پیرامونی به‌دنبال آن است که مشکل امنیتی خود را با طراحی راهبرد نوین و کاهش تهدیدها تا اندازه‌ای تخفیف دهد. نوآوری این پژوهش در شناسایی عوامل محرک راهبرد امنیت ملی اسرائیل از منظری غیرایدئولوژیک و از نگاه خود تحلیلگران اسرائیل است که بینشی را نسبت به‌ پیش‌بینی و شناخت اقدامات اسرائیل در آینده فراهم می‌آورد. همچنین با توجه به روند تهدیدها از سطح متعارف به سطوح نامتعارف، یافته‌های تحلیلی پژوهش تغییرات معناداری را در راهبرد کلاسیک امنیت ملی اسرائیل تبیین کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Israel's national security strategy in the face of environmental threats

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hadi Borhani 1
  • Seyed Hamed Hosseini 2
1 Assistant Professor, Middle East Department, Faculty of World Studies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD Student in International Relations, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Understanding Israel's security policies from a realist point of view has almost become a fundamental principle. It seems that this regional actor has adjusted all its relations with regional countries based on the policy of zero sum, and therefore security concerns have overshadowed other aspects of the actor's policies. Accordingly, Israel's foreign policy is almost equivalent to its national security policy, and without understanding the nature of security threats and challenges, understanding Israel's foreign policy process cannot be understood and evaluated. In the long run, it seems that Israel's security problems have not changed much, and this small actor still faces the same challenges both at the peripheral and regional levels. Given that Israel views regional security relations vertically, that is exclusively state-to-state and confined to superior military power, not horizontally and strategically or multilaterally and under comprehensive security, effective deterrence remains at the core of Israel's strategic thinking.
Existing trends are likely to turn into turmoil sooner or later, forcing Israel to play a role in mitigating the challenges. From Israel's point of view, the emergence of this emerging Middle East has created a new multi-faceted and uncertain scenario in which a strategic doctrine adapted to these changing and unexpected conditions is essential for survival. Today's complex and challenging operating conditions, which have led to geostrategic changes in borders and the environment, are the result of regional developments and related events that have led to fundamental changes in the level of Israel's strategic decisions. At the core of Israel's strategic assessment is the challenge between its apparent power and success in various fields and the likelihood that this situation will continue, albeit temporarily and fragilely. This challenge stems from a number of factors that could in the future lead to the expansion of threats and conflicts with the escalation of the security dilemma, and includes Israel's approach to a series of key national security challenges.
Overall, in the view of Israeli security analysts, the window of strategic opportunity does not appear to have been sufficiently exploited, and growing threats require a rethinking of Israel's security strategy, defense policy, resource allocation, and more up-to-date strategies. These analysts suggest two possible approaches to Israel's strategy: one is a cautious and stabilizing solution, emphasizing diplomacy and controlling existing threats so that they do not become malignant. Second, it is a preventive and possibly aggressive solution to eliminate emerging threats, but it can lead to full-scale war in various fields. According to these analysts, the main prerequisite for choosing the right approach is to strengthen the foundation of the internal cohesion of Israeli society, and by emphasizing social solidarity, they seek to first heal social gaps and then restore confidence in governing institutions. In addition, the issue of Palestine continues to mean that the real problem that some actors are trying to ignore, or at least pretend to not exist, has significant implications for regional actors' relations. The issue of Palestine remains a regional issue with historical, religious and cultural dimensions, and Israel and its allies cannot ignore it. It is true that Israel's relations with some Arab countries have taken on a new form, but strong alliances with Israel are not expected to be formed before the Palestinian issue is resolved.
Analysis and strategic assessment of regional trends show that Israel does not face immediate and immediate threats at this time and in the short term. However, there are signs of internal, peripheral, and regional trends that could lead to malignancies in the future and increase the likelihood that these existential threats will become a reality. The timing of these threats, which are largely foreign sources, varies: while rocket and missile strikes can occur in the short term, other external threats, such as the formation of a regional coalition of hostile actors, the nuclearization of the Middle East, and international isolation, can occur in the interim. Long-term occur. At the same time, the internal threat of social incoherence to Israeli Jewish identity under certain conditions could also develop in the medium term. Regardless of the ideological point of view, in the end it should be emphasized that Israel is not a passive actor according to the existing assessments, but an actor that tries to change the existing threatening realities and keep the threats it faces away.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Israel's regime
  • security dilemma
  • Defensive realism
  • threat
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