عنوان مقاله [English]
The resurgence of interest in regionalism dates back to the 1990s, and the interest generated by regional convergence processes in Asia, Africa and the United States shows that this phenomenon is not limited to the European Union. Iran, China, Brazil and Russia are among the most neighboring countries in the world. In an active and dynamic foreign policy, correct knowledge based on scientific approaches is an indisputable element, therefore, the issues of the neighborhood policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in an environment with unique geostrategic, geo-economics and geo-cultural features will not be outside this framework .Iran's neighbors include 15 countries with an area of 27,409 square kilometers, a population of 707 million and a GDP of $ 3,238 billion, which shows a tremendous capacity in recognizing strategic requirements based on positioning. In the periphery of Iran, Russia in the north, Turkey in the west, Saudi Arabia in the south and Pakistan in the east have more potential to influence the interactions and coordinates of regional relations. Therefore, it is necessary to examine Iran's position on the basis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in accordance with each of the actors.
The method of this research is descriptive-analytical which was done based on strategic studies and in terms of purpose, it is an applied study. The statistical community consists of researchers and analysts specializing in each field by snowball method. The total number of the statistical population is 16 people. To collect data, library resources, documents, backgrounds and surveys were used. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by several experts and reliability using Cronbach's alpha method (0.89). The questionnaire included 48 questions for Russia, 40 questions for Turkey, 82 questions for Saudi Arabia and 47 questions for Pakistan, regarding the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Iran and each of the countries mentioned in the bilateral relations. Likert was prepared in six options. In this article, one of the most important weaknesses of the SOWT technique was considered by researchers. The high or low of threats and weaknesses was less calculated, so in this study, by correcting this shortcoming and considering the negative score for weakness and threat, and the degree of severity and weakness in the range of 0 and 4 were considered negative.
Based on the calculations, the score of Iran's internal factors in relation to Russia is equal to -0.91405 and the total score of Iran's external factors in relation to Russia is equal to -1.47627, which indicates that it is in the range of defensive strategies. Based on the calculations, the score of Iran's internal factors relative to Turkey is equal to -1.17748 and the total score of Iran's external factors relative to Turkey is equal to -0.4771, which indicates that it is in the range of defensive strategies. Based on the calculations, the score of Iran's internal factors in relation to Saudi Arabia is equal to -0.91078 and the total score of Iran's external factors in relation to Saudi Arabia is equal to -0.70421, which indicates that it is in the range of defensive strategies. Based on the calculations, the score of Iran's internal factors relative to Pakistan is equal to -0.63056 and the total score of Iran's external factors relative to Pakistan is equal to 0.120456, which indicates that it is in the range of conservative strategies.
Based on the calculations, the score of Iran's internal factors in relation to the four selected neighbors is equal to -0.90822 and the total of Iran's external scores in relation to the four selected neighbors is equal to -0.63428, which indicates the position of Iran in the range of defensive strategies.
Findings show that in the current situation, Iran is in a maximum defensive position in its neighborhood and especially in relation to the main countries of the region. The findings of this article in the form of a limited study show that affected by various internal and external conditions and far from any fantasies, the current situation of Iran in its neighborhood and especially in relation to the main countries in the region is in a maximum defensive position and on the horizon. In the short term, if national strategies are adopted commensurate with the sources of domestic and foreign power of the country, one can hope to be in a conservative position. Adopting aggressive approaches in the current situation (December 2021), especially in neighborly relations with selected countries, will not involve much geopolitics to strengthen national interests. It should be noted that the current world is an intertwined network based on participatory and competitive currents with a focus on geo-economics’. If we understand the roots of the formation of the situation, we can hope to find real solutions.