نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار چغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران
2 استادیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی دانشکده علوم انسانی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
In recent decades, the coastal states have adopted strategies to exercise sovereignty over their maritime areas. The main goal of these strategies has been to secure national interests and create maritime security. The emergence of security in maritime corridors is related to the coastal countries strategies in the form of international conventions. efficient law navy forces are the main tools in this case. Proper sovereignty over the Strait of Hormuz from a defense point of view, it is a strategic necessity for Iran now and in the future. Therefore, this article tries to ask the question, what is the role of the Strait of Hormuz in the appropriate defense strategy of Iran and what are the geopolitical consequences of the Strait blockade for the interests and national security of Iran?
The type of research is descriptive-analytical and data collection is done in a library manner.
After collecting information, relevant data were extracted and analyzed in line with the research question. While explaining the basic concepts of the research, the situation of the Strait of Hormuz has been studied from various aspects and its geopolitical importance in relation to Iran's defense strategies has been pointed out.
The most important findings of this article in order to answer the main question can be expressed in the form of statements such as geopolitical and strategic attractiveness of the Strait of Hormuz, the separation of the Iranian-Oman Sea border in the Strait of Hormuz, the separation of the Strait of Hormuz and Iran's naval defense strategy. He categorized the maritime territories and the Strait of Hormuz.
The threat of blocking the Strait of Hormuz and preventing the movement of foreign ships and impeding maritime trade in the Persian Gulf region has been one of the alternative elements in the defense strategy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in recent decades. Threats to close the Strait of Hormuz have been raised many times by the military and some irresponsible people in the country's foreign policy, but the most important threats have been raised on special occasions by some high-ranking officials who have had significant repercussions in the world.
The Strait of Hormuz, despite official and unofficial threats, has not been completely blocked so far, but action to prevent the passage of ships of some countries through the Strait of Hormuz can be taken as an occasional and limited action to block the Strait of Hormuz. Considered.
If Iran's decision to close the Strait of Hormuz becomes serious and practical, then it will have consequences that will be somewhat irreparable. In the current situation where the country's important ports are located on the shores of the Persian Gulf and also Iranian oil export platforms have been built in the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz is the vital artery of the country and closing the Strait of Hormuz means cutting this artery.
The first consequence of blocking the Strait of Hormuz will be the cessation of Iranian oil sales. Also, cutting off the country's imports through the Strait of Hormuz will be another consequence of the closure of the Strait by the Iranian Navy.
One of the sources of Iran's geopolitical authority and prestige in the region and the world, is the location of the northern part of the strategic Strait of Hormuz in territorial waters and in general this part of the strait belongs to the Islamic Republic of Iran. The dependence of oil and gas producers in the Persian Gulf region and oil and gas consumers in the world on the Strait of Hormuz exceeds its importance beyond a simple international crossing. In such circumstances, what is the country's geopolitical value in the region and the world will grow, there will be lasting security and a safe flow of energy from this strait.