جایگاه ژئوپلیتیکی تنگۀ هرمز در راهبرد دفاع دریای ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار چغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی دانشکده علوم انسانی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

با تشکیل نیروی دریایی در سال 1303 اعمال حاکمیت بر قلمروی دریایی کشور شروع شد. تصویب نخستین قانون مناطق دریایی ایران در سال 313 ، اعمال حاکمیت را قانونمند کرد. در دهه‎های بعد قانون مناطق دریایی ایران بازنگری شد. در تکمیل آن، حقوق و قوانین بین‎الملل دریاها مؤثر بود. موضوع قوانین دریایی کشور، همواره خلیج فارس و دریای عمان بوده است و تنگۀ هرمز به‌عنوان آبراه مهم جهانی از نظام حقوقی ویژه‎ای برخوردار نشده است. در نتیجه، عبور از آن دارای نظام حقوقی خاصی نیست و قوانین کنوانسیون 1982 حقوق بین‏الملل دریاها به تنگۀ هرمز نیز تعمیم داده می‏شود. تنش‎های سیاسی پیش‌آمده در دهه‎های اخیر و اقدامات خصمانۀ کشورهای متخاصم، سبب شده است بستن تنگۀ هرمز به‌عنوان اهرم بازدارندۀ تدافعی مورد توجه مسئولان کشور قرار بگیرد.
در این مقالۀ توصیفی و تحلیلی که به شیوۀ کتابخانه‏ای انجام داده‌ایم، ضمن بررسی وضعیت و روند اقدامات ایران در عرصۀ قلمروهای  دریایی، به نقش ژئوپلیتیک تنگۀ هرمز در سیاست‎های دفاعی کشور می‎پردازیم که به‌عنوان متغییر مستقل در این پژوهش مطرح است و پیامد‎های  بستن تنگۀ هرمز نیز به‌عنوان متغییر تابع است. این پرسش مطرح است که تنگۀ هرمز چه جایگاهی در راهبرد دفاع دریایی ایران داشته است و طرح  بستن تنگه از منظر راهبرد دفاعی دریایی چه پیامدهایی دارد؟ براساس یافته‎های پژوهش، طرح بستن تنگۀ هرمز توسط جمهوری اسلامی ایران، همواره واکنش‎های زیادی در پی داشته است. ساخت خطوط لولۀ جایگزین، ابراز مخالفت‎های بین‏المللی، تهدید به‌کارگیری نیروی نظامی با بازنگهداشتن تنگه از جمله آن‌ها بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The strait of Hormoz geopolitical role in Iran's Maritime Defense Strategy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sohrab Asgari 1
  • Mostafa Ghadri Hajat 2
1 Assistant Professor, Geography Dept Payam Noor UniversityTehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Political Geography, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction   
In recent decades, the coastal states have adopted strategies to exercise sovereignty over their maritime areas. The main goal of these strategies has been to secure national interests and create maritime security. The emergence of security in maritime corridors is related to the coastal countries strategies in the form of international conventions. efficient law navy forces are the main tools in this case. Proper sovereignty over the Strait of Hormuz from a defense point of view, it is a strategic necessity for Iran now and in the future. Therefore, this article tries to ask the question, what is the role of the Strait of Hormuz in the appropriate defense strategy of Iran and what are the geopolitical consequences of the Strait blockade for the interests and national security of Iran?
Methodology
The type of research is descriptive-analytical and data collection is done in a library manner.
After collecting information, relevant data were extracted and analyzed in line with the research question. While explaining the basic concepts of the research, the situation of the Strait of Hormuz has been studied from various aspects and its geopolitical importance in relation to Iran's defense strategies has been pointed out.
Finding
The most important findings of this article in order to answer the main question can be expressed in the form of statements such as geopolitical and strategic attractiveness of the Strait of Hormuz, the separation of the Iranian-Oman Sea border in the Strait of Hormuz, the separation of the Strait of Hormuz and Iran's naval defense strategy. He categorized the maritime territories and the Strait of Hormuz.
Analyses
The threat of blocking the Strait of Hormuz and preventing the movement of foreign ships and impeding maritime trade in the Persian Gulf region has been one of the alternative elements in the defense strategy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in recent decades. Threats to close the Strait of Hormuz have been raised many times by the military and some irresponsible people in the country's foreign policy, but the most important threats have been raised on special occasions by some high-ranking officials who have had significant repercussions in the world.
The Strait of Hormuz, despite official and unofficial threats, has not been completely blocked so far, but action to prevent the passage of ships of some countries through the Strait of Hormuz can be taken as an occasional and limited action to block the Strait of Hormuz. Considered.
If Iran's decision to close the Strait of Hormuz becomes serious and practical, then it will have consequences that will be somewhat irreparable. In the current situation where the country's important ports are located on the shores of the Persian Gulf and also Iranian oil export platforms have been built in the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz is the vital artery of the country and closing the Strait of Hormuz means cutting this artery.
The first consequence of blocking the Strait of Hormuz will be the cessation of Iranian oil sales. Also, cutting off the country's imports through the Strait of Hormuz will be another consequence of the closure of the Strait by the Iranian Navy.
Conclusion
One of the sources of Iran's geopolitical authority and prestige in the region and the world, is the location of the northern part of the strategic Strait of Hormuz in territorial waters and in general this part of the strait belongs to the Islamic Republic of Iran. The dependence of oil and gas producers in the Persian Gulf region and oil and gas consumers in the world on the Strait of Hormuz exceeds its importance beyond a simple international crossing. In such circumstances, what is the country's geopolitical value in the region and the world will grow, there will be lasting security and a safe flow of energy from this strait.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iran
  • Strait of Hormuz
  • Defense strategy
  • Geopolitics
  • Defense Policy
  1.  

     

     

    1. Ahmadi Dahka, Fariborz. (2014). Geopolitics analysis marine soverignly Iran in persian gulf and hormoz strait. territory, 10(issue 40), 69-80. [in Persian]
    2. Ajorlu, Mohammad Jafar and Bapiri, Massoud (2013). The role of the Strait of Hormuz and its northern islands in the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Journal of Defense Policy, 21(84),99 -124. [in Persian]
    3. Alidosti Shahraki, Qasem, Rahmati Leila, (2018). The Relationship between Defense Diplomacy and Foreign Policy (A Theoretical Approach and a Policymaking Mechanism). Journal of Defense Policy, 26(102), 105-138. [in Persian]
    4. allahverdizadeh, Reza. (2019). Explaining the role of geographic and territorial factors in sea power of the States. Geopolitics Quarterly, 15(55), 122-155. [in Persian]
    5. Amiri, Ali. (2020). Explaining the Role of the Navy in Exercising the Maritime Power of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Geopolitics Quarterly, 16(57), 138-182. [in Persian]
    6. Arghavani Pirsalami, Fariborz (2012). Defense-Security Policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Fifth Development Plan Law, Journal of Defense Policy, Volume 20, Number 78, Spring 2012, pp: 137-105[in Persian]
    7. Asgari, Sohrab (2002). Geopolitics of Iranian Maritime Territories in the Persian Gulf, PhD Thesis, Supervisor Dr. Darreh Mirheidar, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran. [in Persian]
    8. Asgari, Sohrab (2004). The role of the Persian Gulf and the Middle East in energy geopolitics, political-economic information, No. 209 and 210, 1383, pp: 16-19. [in Persian]
    9. Azgandi, Alireza and Roshandel, Jalil (1992). Contemporary Military and Strategic Issues, Tehran: Samat Publications. [in Persian]
    10. Baylis, J., et al (2003), Strategy in the Contemporary World (An Introduction to Strategic Studies), translated in to Persian by Khabiri, K., Tehran, iran
    11. Christopher, Hoch, The Strait of Hormuz Potential for conflict, http//www.american.edu/ted/ice/hormus.html.2008
    12. Churchill, Lou, Ellen, Robin (1997). International Law of the Seas, translated by Bahman Aghaei, Tehran: Office of Political and International Studies, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, [in Persian]
    13. Collins, John, M. (1994). Military Geography, translated by Abdolmajid Heidari and others, Publications: Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. [in Persian]
    14. Cordsman, A. h., Iran, oil and the strarit of Hormuz, CSIS. June 2007
    15. Ezzati, Ezatollah (1994) Geostrategy, Tehran: Samat Publications. [in Persian]
    16. Ezzati, Ezatollah (2001) Geopolitics in the 21st Century, Tehran: Samat Publications. [in Persian]
    17. Glassner, M.I., Blij, H.J.D, (1989), Systematic Political Geography, JOHN WILEY & SONS, Canada.
    18. Hafeznia, M., Rashid, G., Parhezgar, A., Afshordi, M. (2007). Geopolitical Factors in Strategic Defense Planning: A Theoretical Model. Geopolitics Quarterly, 3(8), 38-7. [in Persian]
    19. Hafeznia, Mohammad Raz (2013). Investigation of reflections of possible obstruction of Strait of Hormuz, Tehran: Jihad Daneshgahi Publications, 2013. [in Persian]
    20. Hafeznia, Mohammad Reza (2002). Political Geography of Iran, Tehran: Samat Publications. [in Persian]
    21. Hafeznia, Mohammad Reza (2013). Persian Gulf and the strategic role of the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran: Samat, 2003. [in Persian]
    22. Hafeznia, Mohammad Reza and Kaviani-Rad, Morad (2004) New Horizons in Political Geography, Tehran: Samat Publications. [in Persian]
    23. Hafeznia, Mohammad Reza and Rabiee, Hossein (2013). Persian Gulf Regional Studies, Tehran: Samat. [in Persian]
    24. Iliopoulos, I. (2009) Strategy and Geopolitics of Sea Power Throuhout History, Baltic Security and Defense Review, vol 11, issue 2, p: 5
    25. , (2014), Implication of The United Nations Convension on the Law of the Sea for The International Maritime Organization, Study by the Secretariat of the International Maritime Organization (IMO),
    26. Jafari Valdani, Asghar (2002). New Geopolitics of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, Tehran: Publications of the Office of Political and International Studies of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2002. [in Persian]
    27. Jafari Valdani, Asghar (2010). Geopolitics of the Strait of Hormuz and Iran-Oman Relations, Journal of Political Science, Summer 2010, Volume 5, Number 3. [in Persian]
    28. Jafari, Abbas (2010). Encyclopedia of Gitashenasi, Volume 1, Gitashenasi Publications, 2010[in Persian]
    29. Journal of the Faculty of Law and Political Science Volume 32, Serial Issue 1144, Summer [in Persian]]
    30. Kalantari, Fathullah (2015). Application of Defense Policy with Defense Strategy and Military Strategy, Journal of Defense Policy, Volume 23, Number 92, Fall 2015, pp: 59-35[in Persian].
    31. Kazemi, Ali Asghar (1989). Legal Dimensions of Iranian Sovereignty in the Persian Gulf, Tehran: Office of Political and International Studies, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. [in Persian]
    32. Lotfian, Saeedeh (2014). Strategies and Strategic Planning Methods, Office of Political and International Studies. [in Persian]
    33. Madani, Ahmad (1978). Persian Gulf Writers Trial, Toos Publications. [in Persian]
    34. Mir Haidar, Darreh (1988) Political Geography of Traffic Separation Plans in the Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz, Foreign Political Journal, pp. 591-571. [in Persian]
    35. MirHaidar, Darreh (2008). Fundamentals of Political Geography, Tehran: Samat. [in Persian]
    36. MirHaidar, Darreh et al. (2007). The process of coastalization of coastal countries in the Persian Gulf, Geopolitical Quarterly, Year 3, Issue 1, 2007, pp: 21-1. [in Persian]
    37. MirHaider, Darreh (2010). Developments of Five Decades of Thought and Research in Political Geography, Papli Publications. [in Persian]
    38. Mojtahed-Zadeh, P., (2001), Security and Terrtoriality in The Persian Gulf, Translated into Persian by: Amir Massoud Ejtehadi, The Instute for Politcal & International Studies, Tehran
    39. Mojtahedzadeh, Pirooz (1994). Countries and Borders in the Persian Gulf Geopolitical Region, translated by Hamid Reza Malek Mohammadi Nouri, Publications of the Office of Political and International Studies of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. [in Persian]
    40. Mojtahedzadeh, Pirooz (1996). Tonb and Abu Musa Islands, translated by Hamid Reza Malek Mohdi Nouri, Office of Political and International Studies. [in Persian]
    41. Mojtahedzadeh, Pirooz (2000). Persian Gulf Countries and Borders, Atai Publications. [in Persian]
    42. Mojtahedzadeh, Pirooz (2001). Security and Territorial Issues in the Persian Gulf, translated by Amir Massoud Ejtehadi, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Publishing Center. [in Persian]
    43. Mojtahedzadeh, Pirooz (2002). Political Geography and Geographical Politics, Samat Publications. [in Persian]
    44. Mumtaz, Jamshid. (1994). The Law of the Naval War and the Performance of the Islamic Republic of Iran during the Iraq-Iran War, translated by Koohi, Hossein Taraz. [in Persian]
    45. Ngantcha, F., the right of innocent passage and the evolution of the international law of the sea, publication of the graduate of international studies, Geneva, published in London, 1998
    46. Pirnia, Hassan (2016). Pre-Islamic history of Iran, Sama Publications. [in Persian]
    47. Zarrin Mah, Mahmoud (2008). Possibility and Consequences of Obstruction of the Strait of Hormuz, Journal of Defense Policy, Volume 16, Number 63, Summer 2008, pp: 73-41. [in Persian]
    1. https://www.oilandgasmiddleeast.com/article-10748-analysis-on-the-uaes-habshan-fujairah-pipline
    2. https://nationalinterest.org/blog/middle-east-watch/iran%E2%80%99s-rockets-and-mines-could-block-strait-hormuz-112031
    3. https://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-skeptics/does-the-us-military-actually-protect-middle-east-oil-18995
    4. https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=39932#
    5. http://www.qudsonline.ir/news/653925
    6. https://ana.ir/fa/news/17/293874
    7. https://www.isna.ir/news/97091306041
    8. https://www.ettelaat.com/mobile/?p=57033&