هویت و بی‌طرفی در سیاست خارجی عمان در خاورمیانه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه خوارزمی

2 دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران، ایران

چکیده

سیاست خارجی عمان در مواجهه با موضوعات مختلف منطقه‌ای در خاورمیانه از الگوی رفتاری دیگر کشورهای عربی حاشیه خلیج‌فارس متمایز است. رویکرد این کشور در قبال ایران، برخورد متمایز تاریخی با مسئله اعراب و اسرائیل و بحران دیپلماتیک قطر جملگی مواردی هستند که عمان در برخورد با آن‌ها نوعی استقلال رفتاری از خود نشان داده و سیاست خارجی متمایزی را پیگیری کرده است. یکی از مهم‌ترین مؤلفه‌هایی که سبب تکوین این الگوی رفتاری گردیده، بستر اجتماعی منحصربه‌فرد عمان و هویتی است که در این بستر اجتماعی قوام یافته و به‌عنوان یک ارزش سبب انتخاب الگوی رفتاری خاصی گردیده است. بر این اساس، این پژوهش در راستای پاسخ به پرسش چگونگی تأثیرگذاری هویت بر سیاست خارجی عمان، این فرضیه را بررسی می‌کند که هویت عمان با پذیرش تکثرگرایی بر سیاست خارجی این کشور تأثیر گذاشته و منجر به اتخاذ رویکرد بی‌طرفی و میانجیگری شده است. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از نظریه سازه‌انگاری، به این نتیجه رسیده است که تکثرگرایی ناشی از تساهل دینی/زبانی/قومیتی به‌عنوان متغیر مداخله‌گر از جزم‌گرایی عمان در عرصه سیاست خارجی ممانعت به عمل آورده و موجب رویکرد بی‌طرفی در برخورد با مسائل مختلف منطقه گردیده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

identity and neutralism in Oman's foreign policy in the Middle East

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahammad nasirzadeh 1
  • Farideh Mohammad ALi pour, 2
1 Department of International Relations, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Kharazmi University,
2 Department of International Relations, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

There are significant differences between Oman's foreign policy compared to others Persian Gulf Arab state, and Omani politicians have demonstrated a unique foreign policy in addressing the challenges of the Middle East. In the Iraq-Iran war, Oman's political leaders, unlike other Persian Gulf  states, did not line up to support Iraq and sought to maintain relations with both sides in the war. After the challenge in the relations between Iran and Saudi Arabia, this country has maintained its relations with other Arab countries on the Persian Gulf at the level of diplomatic relations. Unlike most countries in the Persian Gulf region, Oman not only did not call for a diplomatic embargo on Egypt after the Camp David Accords, but also tried to pave the way for its return to the Arab world. After the so-called Arab Spring upheavals and the diplomatic crisis in relations between Saudi Arabia and Qatar, Oman has not only opposed the Qatar embargo, but has also tried to end the crisis while maintaining relations with both sides. One of the most important factors that has caused Oman to behave differently in foreign policy compared to other Persian Gulf countries is its identity. Because the identity of countries has an important role in the foreign policy of countries. Accordingly, this study examines the question of how identity has affected Oman's foreign policy?. Examines the hypothesis that Omani identity has influenced the country's foreign policy by accepting pluralism and has led to a neutral and mediated approach.
Among the concepts that are selected as focal concepts in foreign policy, the concept of identity has a special place. In a general definition, identity refers to the distinctiveness of an actor. To understand the behavior of different actors, including countries, one can obtain valuable information by focusing on the identity of the actor. Becausse identity is the motivating factor for international actors. To determine how identity affects the foreign policy of countries, the value approach can be used as a framework for action, The three components of value, priority and foreign policy actions are the most important focal concepts of this analytical approach. In this approach, in order to explain the causal actions, priority is placed between values and foreign policy actions. In other words, value determines the priority of a particular action in foreign policy. The value perceived by decision makers leads them to choose a particular priority in foreign policy.
Oman has the majority of Ibadi religion. Ibadia has full tolerance towards other religions, cultures and even other sections within Islam as a strong pillar in its spiritual, moral and cultural orientations.  Accordingly, the Ibadiyya religion helped create a culture of tolerance and social cohesion in Oman. Oman's identity has facilitated many diplomatic initiatives and mediation, and identity diversity has provided the potential for the country to play a mediating role in regional crises.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • identity
  • Foreign Policy
  • Neutrality
  • Oman
  • Middle East
 
 
Adeli, M. (2017). Investigating the status of Ibadi flow in the contemporary period, Regional research, pp 83- 116. [In Persian]
Al-Basoos, H. & Maashani M. (2020). Oman’s diplomacy strategy: Maneuvering tools to face regional challenges, Research in Business & Social Science, Vol 9, No 2, pp 152-163.
Al-Basoos, H, Mohammed Ali, Z & Alhasni, A. (2020). The Nature of Oman’s Relations with Iran, Sultan Qaboos University, Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, pp. 5-14.
Al-Ghbrai, Ismail Bin Saleh. (2011). Omani identity in the Carriage scales, Alfalaq magazine, Issue XII, at: www.alfalq.com/?p=2227, Accesses on: 22 February 2021
Al-Ismaili, A. (2018). Ethnic, Linguistic, and Religious Pluralism in Oman: The Link with Political Stability, AlMuntaqa, pp. 58-73.
Al-Jahdhami, S. (2017). Zadjali: The dying language, International Journal of Language and Linguistics, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 49-59.
Aljazeera. (2020). In 2020, diplomacy in the Gulf may be easier to achieve: at: https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2020/1/21/in-2020-diplomacy-in-the-gulf-may-be-easier-to-achieve/. Accesses on: 24 February 2020.
Al-Khafaji, H. (24 February 2018). The Sultanate of Oman and its Policy of Neutrality Toward Iran, at: http://www.bayancenter.org/en/2018/02/1441. Accesses on: 22 February 2021.
Al-Said, F. (1992). Introduction. In The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project to Study the Silk Roads. Muscat, Sultanate of Oman: The Ministry of Heritage and Culture.
Al-Yahyai, F. (2013). Samples of identity and its indications in works of Omani artists. In the Ministry of Heritage and Culture (Ed.), The Omani plastic arts: the reality of practices and approaches of experiments. Muscat: Oman Press.
Al-Yahyai, F. (2017). The Significance of Omani Identity in the Works of Oman.
Amel S & Nafla S. Kha. (2012). The Sound System of Lawatiyya, Journal of Academic and Applied Studies, 2(5): 36-44.
Baabood, A. (2020). Qatar, Kuwait, and Oman: The Middle East’s, at: https://ecfr.eu/special/battle_lines/oman.
Barnett, M. (1999). Culture, Strategy and Foreign Policy Change: Israel’s Road to Oslo. European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 5–36.
Basit, N. (2009). White British: dual heritage; British Muslim; young Britons’ conceptualisation of identity and citizenship: British Educational Research Journal, No. 35, pp. 723–743.
Bayoumy, Y. (2016). Iran steps up weapons supply to Yemen’s Houthis via Oman, Reuters, 30 October,Retrievedfrom:https://www.reuters.com/article/usyemen-security-iran/exclusiveiran-steps-up-weapons-supply-to-yemens-houthis-via-oman-officials-idUSKCN12K0CX (accessed 12 Jun. 2018).
Bhacker, M. (2003). Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: Roots of British Domination. New York, US: Routledge.
Bilgin, A. (2018). Relations between Qatar and Saudi Arabia After the Arab Spring, Contemporary Arab Affairs113–134.
Billig, M. (1995). Banal Nationalism, London: Sage.
Biuck,M & Akraminia, M. (2020). Explaining the Role of Geopolitical Factors in Oman's Foreign Policy, Human Geography Research Quarterly, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 283-305. [In Persian]
Bloom, W, E. (1993). Personal Identity, National Identity and International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brewer, M. B. (2001). Ingroup identification and intergroup conflict. When does ingroup love become outgroup hate? In R. D. Ashmore, L. Jussim, & D. Wilder (Eds.). Social identity, intergroup conflict, and conflict reduction (pp. 17-41). New York: Oxford University Press.
Brysk, A, Craig P, & Wayne S. (2002). After Empire: National Identity and Post-Colonial Families of Nations. European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 267–305.
Cafiero, G & Yefet, A. (2016). Oman and the GCC: A Solid Relationship?, at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mepo.12216.
Cafiero, G. (2020). Oman plays it safe on Israel, Middle East Institute, at: https://www.mei.edu/publications/oman-plays-it-safe-israel.
Carlsnaes, W. (1987). Ideology and Foreign Policy: Problems of Comparative Conceptualization. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Cerioli, L. (2018). Roles and International Behaviour: Saudi–Iranian Rivalry in Bahrain’s and Yemen’s Arab Spring, Contexto Internacional, pp. 294-317.
Dziekan, M. (2008). Dzieje kultury arabskiej: Warszawa. at: https://lubimyczytac.pl/ksiazka/77970/dzieje-kultury-arabskiej. Accesses on: 20 February 2021.
Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran. (2020). About Oman" Culture": https://oman.mfa.gov.ir/portal/GeneralCategoryServices/5196. [In Persian]
Karami, A & Dost Mohammadi A. (2017). Geopolitical Analysis of Iran and Oman Relations Before and After the Islamic Revolution, International Quarterly Of Geopolitics, Volume 12, Issue 43, pp121-151. [In Dawn, Ch & John, P. (2001). “Oman,” in Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember, eds, Countries and their CulturesNew York: Macmillan,
Eickelman, CH. (1984). Women and Community in Oman. New York: New York University Press.
Foreign Ministry Of Oman. (2021). Foreign policy, at: https://fm.gov.om/about-oman/government/constitution/.
Foreign Ministry Of Oman. (2020). Principles, at: https://fm.gov.om/policy/principles/.
Foreign policy. (2020). why Oman Loves Iran, at: https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/01/16/sultan-qaboos-oman-loves-iran-shah/. Accesses on: 22 February 2021.
Funsch, L. P. (2015). Oman Reborn: Balancing Tradition and Modernization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Fürtig, H. (2002). Iran’s Rivalry with Saudi Arabia between the Gulf Wars. Reading, UK: Garner Publishing Limited.
Ghubash, H. (2006). Oman – The Islamic Democratic Tradition. New York: Routledge.
Goldsmith, L. (2015). Immunizing Against Sectarian “Sickness”: The Case of Oman: Middle East Institute, at:https://www.mei.edu/publications/immunizing-against-sectarian-sickness-case-oman#_ftn7
Hammond, P. (1988). Religion and the persistence of identity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 27. No. 1, pp.1-11.
Haykel, B. (2013). “Saudi Arabia and Qatar in a Time of Revolution.” Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS).
Hewstone, M., Rubin, M., & Willis, H. (2002). Intergroup bias. Annual Review of Psychology, No. 53. at: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135109?journalCode=psych. Accesses on: 25 February 2021.
Higgins, M & Eicher, J. (1992). Dress and Identity, Clothing and Textile Research Journal, pp. 1-8.
Hilal, N. (2020). Sultanate of Oman's Foreign Policy: Pragmatic but Ethical, Global Scientific Journals, Volume 8, Issue 10 pp 1982-1992.
Hoffman, V. (2015). Ibaḍism: History, Doctrines, and Recent Scholarship, Religion Compass, Vol. 9, No. 9, pp. 297-307.
Hopf, T. (2002). Social Construction of International Politics: Identities and Foreign Policies, Moscow, 19551999. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hunt, J., & Phillips, S. (2017). Becoming a ‘Positive Outlier’: A Case Study of Oman. The Developmental Leadership Program (DLP). Birmingham: UK: University of Birmingham. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from http://publications.dlprog.org/Oman_Hunt_Phillips.pdf.
International Review. (2019). The Israeli Connection: Oman's Foreign Policy, at: https://www.international-review.org/the-israeli-connection-omans-foreign -policy-part-4/. Accesses on: 12 February 2021.
Jepperson, L., Alexander, Wendt, and Peter, K. (1996). Norms, Identity, and Culture in National Security. In The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics, edited by P. J. Katzenstein. New York: Columbia University Press.
John, W. (2010). Ibadism: Origins and Early Development in Oman (New York: Oxford University Press.
Jones, J. (2014). Oman's Quiet Diplomacy. Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, pp. 1-6.
Katzman, K. (2016). Oman: Reform, Security and U. S. Policy, CRS Repirt for Congress, Prepared for Members for Committes of Congress.
Katzman, K. (2020). Oman: Politics, Security, and U.S. Policy, Congressional Research Service.
Kharusi, N. (2013). Identity and Belonging among Ethnic Return Migrants of Oman, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, pp. 424-446.
Kubálková, V. (2011). International Relations in a Constructed World. London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis.
Lacey, R. (2009). Inside the Kingdom: Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. New York: Viking.
Lefebvre, A. (2009). Oman’s Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century, Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, New York City, (February 15-18), 2009. 99-114.
Lewicki, T. (1971). The Ibadites in Arabia and Africa, Journal of World History, No. 13, pp. 3–81.
Lewis, B. (1998). The multiple identities of the Middle East. London: Orion Books.
Liu, G & Turner, D. (2018). Identity and national identity, Educational Philosophy and Theory: 1080-1088.
Luciani, G. (1988). Economic Foundations of Democracy and Authoritarianism: The Arab World in Comparative Perspective, Arab Studies Quarterly, pp. 457-475.
Mabon, S. (2016). Saudi Arabia and Iran: Power and Rivalry in the Middle East. London: IB Tauris.
Martinez, A. (2019). Researching Dress and Identity in Saudi Arabia: – ‘What a strange power there is in clothing’ – Isaac Bashevis Singer, at: https://www.asfar.org.uk/researching-dress-and-identity-in-saudi-arabia-what-a-strange-power-there-is-in-clothing-isaac-bashevis-singer/. Accesses on: 28 February 2021.
Masoud, T.)2015(. “HastheDoorClosedonArabDemocracy?”Journal of Democracy, Vol. 26, No.1, pp. 74–87.
McCall, J., & Simmons, L. (1966). Identities and Interactions. New York: The Free Press.
Meirss. (2018). Interfaith Diplomacy in the Middle East: Is Oman an Anomaly? http://www.meirss.org/interfaith-diplomacy-middle-east-oman-anomaly/#_ftnref6.
Ministry of Information. (2010). The speeches and speeches of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Said 1970 -2010. Muscat: Oman [In  Arabian].
Neubauer, S. (2016). Oman: The Gulf’s Go-Between. Washington D.C.: The Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington (AGSIW). Retrieved April 02, 2019, at: https://agsiw.org/oman-the-gulfs-go-between/. Accesses on: 20 February 2021.
Omanobserver. (2019). Alawi reaffirms Oman’s stance on ME peace: at: https://www.omanobserver.om/alawi-reaffirms-omans-stance-on-me-peace/.
Oman's Constitution. (1996). constituteproject.org at: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Oman_2011.pdf?lang=en.
Otoole, M. (2017). What is Oman’s stance on the Qatar-Gulf crisis? Aljazeera: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/12/1/what-is-omans-stance-on-the-qatar-gulf-crisis.
Parvin, F &Jalalpur, SH. ( 2015). Iran and Oman, from Zofar to Barjam. Qom: Abolhassani Press. [In Persian]
Peterson, J. (2004 a). Oman: Three and a Half Decades of Change andc Development. Middle East Policy, 11(2), 125-137.
Peterson, J. (2004 b). Oman’s Diverse Society: Southern Oman, Middle East Journal: 255-269.
Reuters. (2020). Oman content with current Israel relationship, foreign minister says, at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-oman-politics-idUSKBN2AB1XB
Rieger, R. (2013). The Foreign Policy of the Persian Gulf Monarchies from 1971 to 1990.
Rutherford, J. (1990). Identity: Community, Culture, Difference: Lawrence & Wishart.
Sadiki, L. (2015). The Impact of the Arab Spring on the Gulf Cooperation Counci. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studi: 1-18.
Saeed, B. (2014). Oman, Iranian Rapprochement and a GCC Union, Aljazeera: at: https://studies.aljazeera.net/en/reports/2014/01/20141218365065800.html. Accesses on: 22 February 2021.
Sen, A. (2007). Identity and violence: The illusion of destiny. Penguin Books India
Shehri, M. (2006). A Native Omani Language Under Threat, at: https://www.atheer.om/en/39607/shehri-a-native-omani-language-under-threat/. Accesses on: 26 February 2021.
Sherwood, L. (2017). Foreign Policy Trends in the GCC States: Understanding Oman’s Foreign Policy. Oxford: Oxford Gulf & Arabian Peninsula Studies Forum.
Singhal, R. (2012). The Religion of Oman — Ibadism. Lesser-known Religions. at: https://lesserknownreligions.wordpress.com/2012/12/21/ibadism-the-religion-of-oman/. Accesses on: 22 March 2021.
Smurda, J. D., Wittig, M. A. & Gokalp, G. (2006). Effects of threat to a valued social identity on implicit self-esteem and discrimination, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, No. 9, pp.181–197.
Szalai, M. (2018). The Island of Stability? Oman Amidst the Challenges of Succession, Socio- Economic Development, and Regional Instability. Budapest: Institute for Foreign Affairs and Trade: KKI Policy Brie
Tajfel, H. (1981) Human groups and social categories: studies in social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
The National News. (2017). Kuwaiti emir and King Salman meet over Qatar crisis as Trump backs UAE and Saudi, at: https://www.thenationalnews.com/world/kuwaiti-emir-and-king-salman-meet-over-qatar-crisis-as-trump-backs-uae-and-saudi-1.82485. Accesses on: 24 March 2021.
Times of Israel. (2020). Mossad chief declares Israel renewing Oman ties; Foreign Ministry won’t comment. at: https://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-renewing-oman-ties-saysmossad-chief.
Turner, R. (1968). The Self-Conception in Social Interaction. In The Self in Social Interaction, edited by C. Gordon and K. J. Gergen. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
U.S. Department of State. (2007). Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs, Oman (profile).
Valeri, M. (2007). Nation-building and communities in Oman since 1970: The Swahili-speaking Omani in search of identity. African Affairs, Vol.106, No.424, pp. 479–496.
Valeri, M. (2009). Oman: Politics and Society in the Qaboos State (New York, Columbia University Press.
Valeri, M. (2010). High Visibility, Low Profile: The SHI–A in OMAN Under SULTAN QABOOS, Middle East Study, pp. 251–268.
Valeri, M. (2013). “Domesticating Local Elites: Sheikhs, Walis and State Building Under Sultan Qaboos,” in Regionalizing Oman: Political, Economic and Social Dynamics, ed. S. Wippel, London: Springer,
Valeri, M. (2015). Simmering Unrest and Succession Challenges in Oman. Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Wehrey, K., Nader, A., Ghez, J., Hansell, L., & Guffey, A. (2009). Saudi-Iranian Relationship since the Fall of Saddam: Rivalry, Cooperation, and Implications for US Policy. RAND Corporation
Wendt, A. (1999). Social Theory of International Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[In Persian]
Zeyae, A, (2018). History of Ibadi. Tehran: Amin Press. .[In Persian]
Zoalfaghar, M  Emami, A & Nasirzadeh, M. (2021). The impact of Oman's mediation diplomacy on the security system in the Middle East, Journal of Political Research in Islamic World, pp 169 – 195.