بررسی مقایسه‌ای سیاست خارجی دولت‌های باراک اوباما، دونالد ترامپ و جو بایدن در قبال جمهوری اسلامی ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه مطالعات منطقه‌ای، دانشگاه جامع امام حسین(ع)،تهران، ایران

چکیده

یکی از پیچیده‌ترین و حساس‌ترین روابط در دهه‌های گذشته در نظام بین‌الملل، روابط ایران و آمریکا بوده است. بررسی سیاست دولت‌های مختلف آمریکا نشان می‌دهد، الگوی رفتاری تعارضی آن کشور در قبال ایران در دولت‌های مختلف ادامه داشته و تعدیلی در الگوی رفتاری آن صورت نگرفته است. با رفتن بوش و روی‌کارآمدن اوباما آن‌هم با شعار تغییر، این تصور به وجود آمد که او راهبرد و سیاست جدیدی در قبال ایران در پیش خواهد گرفت. الگوی به‌کارگرفته‌شدۀ اوباما در قبال ایران متقاعدسازی با گزینه‌های چندجانبه‌گرایی، تعامل، ترغیب و اغوا بوده است. اما روند تحولات در 8 سال زمامداریش منجر به تلاش‌های زیادی در راستای محدودسازی ایران در عرصه‌های سیاسی، اقتصادی و منطقه‌ای شد. این الگو با پیروزی ترامپ با رویکردهای جدید دنبال شد و یک‌جانبه‌گرایی، تقابل، افزایش تحریم و کارزار فشار حداکثری بر سیاست خارجی ترامپ حکمفرما شد. در کانون سیاست خارجی بایدن نیز بازگشت به برجام وجود دارد که این مسئله با تقویت و توسعۀ مفاد و طولانی‌ترکردن آن در مراحل بعدی و همچنین تسری آن به برنامۀ موشکی و نفوذ منطقه‌ای ایران دنبال می‌شود. هدف اصلی در این مقاله بررسی و مقایسۀ راهبرد سیاست خارجی دولت اوباما، ترامپ و بایدن در قبال جمهوری اسلامی ایران است. مسئلۀ اصلی این است که راهبرد اوباما، ترامپ و بایدن در قبال ایران بر چه الگوهایی تمرکز داشته است؟ یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهد مسئلۀ ایران در سیاست خارجی آمریکا، تابع دستورکار کلانی است که فرادولتی و توسط ساختار‌های نهادی آمریکا تبیین شده است. الگوی رفتاری تعارضی آمریکا در قبال ایران به یکی از اولویت‌‌های ثابت و اصلی در سیاست خارجی آمریکا تبدیل شده است. در این پژوهش از روش تحلیلی‌توصیفی و الگوی نظری نولیبرالیسم و نوواقع‌گرایی بهره گرفته‌ایم. داده‌ها را با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه‌ای گردآوری کرده‌ایم.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparative Study of the Foreign Policy of the Obama, Trump and Biden Administrations towards the Islamic Republic of Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Hadi Tajik
Assistant Professor, Department of Regional Studies, Imam Hossein University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

One of the most complex and sensitive relationships in the international system over the past decades has been Iran-US relations. An examination of the policies of various US governments shows that the conflict pattern of that country towards Iran has continued in different governments and no change has been made in its behavior pattern. With the departure of Bush and the coming to power of Obama, with the slogan of change, there was a perception that he would present a new strategy and policy towards Iran. With Obama's entry into the White House, the White House's political literature changed, but such changes did not have much effect on US policy toward Iran. At the same time, the techniques of US political and diplomatic behavior toward Iran changed. This means that although there have been changes in the literature and techniques of Obama's US diplomatic behavior toward Iran, this has only created grounds for rebuilding diplomatic relations in limited areas. In this regard, Obama's strategy for changing Iran has been based on patterns and processes of persuasion through options such as persuasion and seduction. With Trump in office, the situation will change somewhat. In the view of the Trump administration, Iran is an unreliable partner for participation in international politics, so despite its declarative positions, it has not been able to prepare enough to play a role in Middle East security. In other words, Iran's hegemonic role does not have an approach that is in line with international politics, and instead of being in line with it, it is the opposite. On the other hand, the same strategists believe that Obama's negligence in thwarting Iran's strategies has caused Iran to continue to threaten its national interests. In this regard, Iran's organized actions in missile tests as well as Iran's interventionist behavior aimed at destabilizing the region are among the threatening actions of Iran that Western officials, especially US Republicans, have warned of the dangers. The main feature of Trump's foreign policy toward Iran Trump was unilateralism, confrontation, the escalation of sanctions, and the campaign for maximum pressure. There is also a return to Borjam at the heart of Biden's foreign policy, which is pursued by strengthening and expanding its provisions and extending it in later stages, as well as extending it to Iran's missile program and regional influence. Biden's foreign policy towards the Islamic Republic of Iran revolves around Borjami's policy. Statements and statements by Biden and his foreign policy team suggest that Biden's possible US policy toward the Iranian nuclear challenge will be a reciprocal return to the UN Security Council. This is the policy that Biden promised before the election. In an interview with Thomas Friedman, he also expressed his commitment to this policy. The main purpose of this study is to examine and compare the foreign policy strategy of the Obama, Trump, and Biden administrations toward the Islamic Republic of Iran. So the main question is: What patterns has Obama, Trump, and Biden's strategy towards Iran focused on? Findings show that the issue of Iran in US foreign policy is subject to a grand agenda that is explained transnationally by US institutional structures and the pattern of US conflict behavior towards Iran is one of the main and main priorities in US foreign policy. Has become. Evidence shows that the two countries, on the one hand, need mutual security cooperation in critical areas, on the other hand, have ideological contradictions, and each is trying to re-establish its legitimacy in the process of future strategic rivalries. In other words, the pattern of Iran-US behavior not only reflects signs of cooperation but in parallel with such cooperation, manifestations of conflict and disagreement can also be observed. That is why Iran-US relations must be analyzed in the context of asymmetric cooperation (while maintaining red lines and orbiting revolutionary discourse). The present study has used the method of "analytical and descriptive and using library resources" and the theoretical model of neoliberalism and neorealism.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • multilateralism
  • unilateralism
  • persuasion
  • encouragement
  • seduction