نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار روابط بین الملل، گروه ارتباطات و علوم اجتماعی، واحد تهران شرق، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مطالعات منطقهای، دانشکده بیمه اکو، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
There is great importance to use economic diplomacy in foreign policy; especially in those countries, in addition to having a great potential economic, have other commonalities such as cultural and historical commonalities. The field of international relations is heavily influenced by cultural and identity factors. Therefore, gaining reputation and influence in a country or the region are among the important goals of states in diplomacy, which is commensurate with their position, each country’s cultural opportunities, and capacities are pursued in a variety of ways and mechanisms.
Turkey has good potential for cooperation with the Central Asian Republics in the economic field due to its cultural history with the countries and having a high level of economic development in the region. One of the Principles of Turkey’s foreign policy during the AK Party era (2002-2020) is having close relations with the Central Asian countries. For Turkey, it is important to strengthen economic diplomacy with countries in the region because of having a shared culture with them.
The main question is “How is the economic diplomacy of Turkey during the AKP era in the Central Asia region?” and the sub-question is “What are the factors of economic diplomacy of Turkey in the Central Asia region during the AKP era?”
Six indicators of economic diplomacy that are part of the foreign policy of the developmental government are presented as trade growth based on export development strategy, attracting foreign investment and foreign contracting policy, free and preferential trade agreements, harmonious relations with all, positive interaction with international economic institutions and creating a positive image which are briefly explained below:
Increasing foreign trade: There is a positive correlation between an efficient foreign policy, a strong economy, and a strong foreign trade. Some, such as Gershon Feder, argue that the impact of exports on GDP is not limited to GDP growth
Attract foreign investment and expand contracting: Overseas investment and export of foreign engineering and contracting technical services, in addition to laying the groundwork for the soft power of the exporting country, will also lead to long-term interdependence and the creation of national wealth. Newly industrialized countries not only attract foreign investment but also strengthen a country’s foreign trade by transferring capital abroad and contracting abroad. This leads to the creation of new markets and the exercise of soft power in the target countries.
Free and preferential trade agreements: Agreements between countries that are not necessarily in a geographical area and include actions taken by governments to facilitate trade through free trade agreements or customs unions. Efforts to achieve systematic conditions for the national development strategy are made through bargaining and international trade negotiations through free and preferential trade agreements.
Harmonious relationship with everyone: The foreign policy of a country like a businessman can communicate with all potential customers and the strategy of a successful actor is to attract more capital apart from personal interest. This strategy seeks positive interaction with all potential markets and related governments.
Positive interaction with international economic institutions: A government must use the resources and guidelines of international business and financial institutions in line with its business and economic vision. Apart from decision-making independence and political power, constructive interaction with these institutions is very effective.
Positive image: The classification of countries into two categories, positive and negative, is examined under the heading of image or mentality in international relations. Each image contains cognitive information from another country in these areas: culture, capability (military, economic), security, democracy, and so on. Depending on the type of image presented by the actors, they and others interact with it. These images are usually formed in the minds of individuals and leaders for a long time, and in the face of situations, people use only pre-made images and words to make decisions. This index does not fall into the category of formal economic diplomacy, but indirectly has a positive effect on target markets and practically plays the role of informal economic diplomacy.
The hypothesis to answer the two questions is: “Turkey's economic diplomacy in Central Asia during the AKP era has worked efficiently and effectively. The Economic Diplomacy of Turkey in the region during the AKP era can be explained through 6 factors of economic diplomacy in the Foreign Policy of the Developmentalist Government, which are: trade growth based on export development strategy, foreign investment attraction and foreign contracting policy, free and preferential trade agreements, harmonious relationship with all, Positive Interaction with International Economic Institutions and creating a positive image. Turkey’s economic diplomacy in the Central Asian region has been pursued seriously in the region and has used its cultural and economic potential at a good level in the region during the AK Party.
This article, analyzed the level of this relationship is analyzed by analyzing the data on Turkey’s economic diplomacy in the Central Asia region, especially with the focus on the 6 factors. Methodology Type in this thesis is Descriptive-Analytical and the data Gathering Methods are Library methods and Internet Resources. This thesis is based on an explanatory research methodology. The Methods of Data Analysis are Quantitative-Qualitative.