کارکرد سازمان ملل متحد در حل‌وفصل بحران افغانستان (۱۹۴۷ تا ۲۰۲۱)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای روابط بین‌الملل، واحد تهران شمال، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان،ایران.

3 استاد گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران.

4 روابط بین الملل، گروه ارتباطات و علوم اجتماعی، واحد تهران شرق، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

10.22034/FASIW.2022.337301.1143

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی و ارزیابی کارکرد سازمان ملل متحد در حل‌وفصل بحران افغانستان است که با کاربست شیوۀ کیفی و مبتنی بر گردآوری اطلاعات از طریق منابع آرشیوی سازمان ملل و به روش توصیفی‌تحلیلی، در پی پاسخ به این پرسش هستیم که کارکرد یا عملکرد سازمان ملل متحد در فرایند حل‌وفصل بحران افغانستان چگونه بوده است؟ فرضیۀ پژوهش مبین آن است که «سازمان ملل متحد به‌عنوان یکی از تأثیرگذارترین سازمان‌های بین‌المللی دولتی به‌وسیلۀ نهادهای اصلی خود مانند شورای امنیت، مجمع عمومی و دبیرکل، با پیاده‌سازی و اجرای اقدامات حقوقی (مانند صدور قطعنامه‌هایی ذیل فصول ششم و هفتم منشور)، اقدامات دیپلماتیک (از طریق فعالیت‌ها و اقدامات دبیرکل و نمایندۀ ویژه او) و نهادسازی (با نظارت بر اجرای قطعنامه‌ها و اقدامات) موجب تقلیل و مقابله با بحران‌ها و توانمند‌سازی و بازسازی کشور افغانستان در برهه‌ای از زمان شد، با وجود این، در رسیدن به این اهداف کاملاً موفق نبوده است»؛ یافته‌های پژوهش که با توجه به قواعد و اصول مدل تحلیلی بحران‌های بین‌المللی مایکل برچر بررسی شده، نشان می‌دهد که سازمان ملل متحد با وجود برخورداری از سطوح بالای استقلال و مشروعیت در سطح بین‌المللی، به‌دلیل ضعف ساختاری و وابستگی ماهوی، در حل‌وفصل بحران افغانستان کارکرد موفقی نداشته و انفعالی (دستخوش عامل خارجی) و غیر راهبردی عمل کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The United Nations' activity to settle the crisis in Afghanistan (1947-2021)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arzoo Ravanstan 1
  • Nozar Shafiei 2
  • Hossein Deheshyar 3
  • Rahmat Haji Mine 4
1 Ph.D. student of International Relations, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 , Associate Professor, Department of International Relations, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran.
3 Professor, Department of International Relations, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor of International Relations, Department of Communication and Social Sciences, Tehran East Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This research aims to analyze and evaluate the United Nations’ activity to settle the crisis in Afghanistan by applying a qualitative method based upon data gathering using the United Nations archival resources and descriptive-analytical method to answer how the United Nations' activity to settle the crisis in Afghanistan has been. the research revealing theory is: The United Nation -one of the most influential intergovernmental organizations- had excessive efforts by implementing and executing political (Through the sixth and seventh resolutions of the UN Charter), diplomatic enterprises (Through the Secretary General and his Special Presentative) and institutionalization (By monitoring the implementation of resolutions and action) through It reduced and confronted crises and empowered and rebuilt the country at some point in time main institutions e.g. security council, general assembly and secretary-general to settle the crisis in Afghanistan, although the aim wasn’t quite accomplished; the research findings according to Micheal Bercher international crisis analysis model and principals indicate that the united nation organization hadn’t been eminent in settling Afghanistan crisis due to organizational weakness and conceptual dependency, despite having high independency and legitimacy level at the international level, and acted passively and nonstrategic.
 
The end of the Second World War was the beginning of the development of organized and regular international and regional relations and dependencies and the comprehensive growth of multilateral cooperation of governments in all fields such as political, economic, and social in international arrangements. In this context, the United Nations as the best and best model and example of an international governmental organization to provide and protect world peace and security, steps into the field of international relations; Therefore, the role of this organization is to protect peace and create security has been revealed today in the form of deterring and preventing conflicts or limiting them. Therefore, despite the many existing deficiencies, he has tried to objectify his capabilities and competence in political fields as a peacemaker and as a reliable and serious broker and agent in bilateral or multilateral relations; Although in this way, due to structural weakness and material dependence, it has not achieved much success.
For example, in the Afghanistan crisis, which is considered one of the most complex and long-lasting international tensions, the United Nations has tried to resolve the issue by issuing many resolutions in most of the sixth and seventh chapters of the United Nations Charter and appointing its special representative and sending them to the center of the crisis. and to play an active role in ending crises. Despite this, in reducing or eliminating the crises that have occurred and even now, the performance of this organization has often been passive, proactive, and non-strategic. For example, in 2001, under the pressure of major powers, this organization recognized the invasion of Afghanistan by the US and NATO coalition. Therefore, the activities of the United Nations in Afghanistan show that the operation of this organization has legitimized the will of the great powers in the occupation and their movements against the opposition of the world. Of course, it cannot be denied that some of the so-called democratic actions of this organization, such as holding and monitoring parliamentary and presidential elections, have shown the positive performance of the United Nations in Afghanistan. In this article, while making sense of the crisis from Michael Brecher's point of view, we will discuss more the performance of the United Nations in solving the Afghanistan crisis.
This article is written by stating the question, what is the function of the United Nations in the process of solving the Afghan crisis? We implemented and moved forward. In this way, by examining the role and performance of the United Nations as the most influential international organization in the arena of the international system, we examined the duties and performance of the three influential pillars of this organization in the process of resolving the Afghan crisis and the measures that each pillar takes in reducing or reducing the crisis as the keyword of crisis management. He has done in Afghanistan in the years 1947 to 2021. Actions that during a period of time led to the reduction, confrontation and empowerment, and reconstruction of Afghanistan through legal measures (with resolutions under the sixth and seventh chapters of the Charter), diplomatic and political measures (through the activities of the Secretary-General and its special representative) and institution building (monitoring the implementation of resolutions and actions) and these actions were further realized through cooperation with other regional organizations such as the European Union and NATO and the supervision of the United Nations. Among them, it is possible to evaluate the role of the United Nations as constructive, effective, decisive, and active in terms of financial, political, planning, and management of the various periods of presidential, assembly, and provincial council elections.
Despite this, the Afghan crisis has continued due to the structural and substantive weakness that has been repeatedly repeated by the member governments and various secretaries-general in this organization. In such way that the existential philosophy of this organization was based on the multipolar system, but during the cold war, this organization was a bipolar system and at the end of the cold war, it was practically dominated by a superpower, which is not only in contradiction with the existential philosophy of this organization, which is currently It has become the most important problem of the United Nations. Also, the fact that the five great powers have the right to veto and its illegal use and abuse are evident in the continuation of the Afghan crisis. For example, the Soviet Union vetoed several resolutions condemning and immediately withdrawing its army from Afghanistan. As another permanent member of the Security Council, with its support for Pakistan, China has considered the crises formed and highlighted in Afghanistan as an internal matter and has continued this situation until now. Also, the United States of America, which is one of the main members of the United Nations Security Council, has repeatedly abused its membership privilege in the Security Council. The issuance of a resolution by the Security Council in 2001 regarding the attack on Afghanistan by the military forces of the United States and its allies (NATO) and the occupation of this country for a period of twenty years is one of the examples of the weakness and structural problems and the substantive dependence of this organization in solving crises, including the Afghan crisis.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Organizations
  • The United Nations
  • Crisis settlement
  • Afghanistan crisis
  • Passive enterprise
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