عنوان مقاله [English]
A review of the turbulent hegemonic competition between Iran and the United States in the past 40 years shows a conflict-filled process with long ups and downs, in which the two countries have always taken the path of conflict and confrontation with all the tools and capacities of their domestic and international power. In this framework, the formation of the current of resistance and the stabilization and strengthening of its hardware and software power components under the shadow of authentic Islamic principles, including the negation of the mustache, was able to sideline the strategic goals of the regional aggressors, from America and Israel to their Western and Arab allies. The research method has a descriptive and analytical nature. This article is based on the teachings of the theory of "hegemonic stability" realism and is based on the assumption that General Soleimani was able to design a model of hegemonic deterrence in West Asia while breaking the foundations of the American hegemonic system in the shadow of structuring and organizing the resistance movement. We have gathered part of the information required for this research by analyzing the content of American national security documents in the years 2002 to 2021 and part by using media news reports and library sources. The results of this research show that Sardar Soleimani's initiative, both during his worldly life and after his martyrdom, was able to combine the rivalry between Iran and America in West Asia with the relative victory of the resistance axis and the hegemonic stabilization of the resistance discourse in this region.
The analysis of terrorist incidents after the US attack on Iraq shows that instead of reducing terrorist acts, this attack caused the spread and strengthening of terrorism in West Asia, and this situation faced the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran with a new challenge. In fact, the American attack on Iraq gave the opportunity to the militia groups to develop their base in this country and recruit troops under the pretext of fighting against the United States with the goal of holy jihad. On the other hand, the critical situation in Iraq caused by the collapse of Saddam Hussein's regime and the power vacuum in this country made it easier for these groups to recruit members and get armed. Meanwhile, by dominating Iraq and using strategies to establish hegemonic stability, America tried to use the opportunity of increasing terrorist activities in this country as a new lever against stability in the Islamic Republic of Iran. In this situation, the command of the Quds Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran, by designing smart strategies, not only tried to curb the growing trend of Takfiri forces in Iraq but also managed to significantly prevent the increase of influence of America and its allies in Iraq.
In this article, using the teachings of the theory of hegemonic stability, we are looking for an answer to the question, how did martyr Soleimani affect the position of the axis of resistance and the hegemonic equations of America in the regional balance of power in West Asia? In response to this question, based on the teachings of the theory of hegemonic stability, we test the hypothesis that General Soleimani was able to design a model of hegemonic deterrence for Iran in West Asia while breaking the foundation of the American hegemonic system in the shadow of structuring and organizing the resistance movement. We have formulated this research using the method of post-event analysis and content analysis. Based on this, in this research, emphasizing the activism of martyr Qassem Soleimani, we show how the influence of structuring and organization leads to hegemonic deterrence of the axis of resistance. We have collected part of the information required for this research from the content analysis of American national security documents in the years 2002 to 2021 and part of it using media news reports and library sources. After a review of the theory of hegemonic stability and then a review of the US national security documents, we show the position of General Soleimani on the change of the US equations in West Asia.
The conditions that arose in Iraq after the US attack show that the alleged US war against terrorism to change the existing situation in the region in favor of the US was not only unsuccessful but also provided the ground for the formation of new terrorist groups and strengthened terrorist ideas. The Iraq war also showed how the behavior and policies of the United States with the aim of establishing hegemonic stability in Iraq caused the terrorist groups that were present in this country before the American attack on Iraq, while multiplying into new groups, to continue their life in Iraq and the past actions Pursue yourself with more territory and wider goals.
By examining the American national security documents, we can reach the point that each of the American strategies, whether it is to deal with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, fight against rogue countries, or promote democracy and human rights, were linked to the issue of fighting terrorism and linking all policies to one issue. The fight against terrorism in order to achieve the hegemonic order can be clearly seen in the American national security documents. Despite this, neither the use of the aggressive policies of the Bush administration, Obama's approach, nor Trump's approach in the Middle East, which are all evaluated against peace and security, did not come to fruition due to what was reviewed in this article as efforts to change the status quo, and the continuation of America's presence in Iraq had no achievement except more insecurity and instability in Iraq and the region.
It seems that the activities of the Quds Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran under the command of General Soleimani have been one of the components of deterrence, the dismantling of hegemonic stability, and the change of the American military equation in West Asia. To put it better, the Quds Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran was able to turn this area into one of the most unsafe areas for terrorists, including American soldiers and Takfiri terrorists, with the initiative of its commander. On the other hand, putting an end to the unipolar world hegemonic order will create deterrence in West Asia.
The most important initiatives of Martyr Soleimani in deterring and creating the destruction of the American hegemonic order and stability can be listed in cases such as strengthening the deterrence of the axis of resistance in the shadow of new developments, evading American sanctions, removing the platform for the reprocessing of terrorist groups in the region, strengthening military infrastructure and expanding the domains of the axis of resistance. Of course, it should be noted that Iran's competition with the United States and its allies for hegemony in the West Asian region continues, and the United States, within the framework of the strategy of distant balance and aggressive realism that we mentioned in the theoretical part of this research, continues to build its network to deal with the axis of resistance continues. It is worth noting that in spite of the huge damages caused to the member countries of the Islamic Republic of Iran's Quds Force as a result of the absence of General Rashid, the network and systematization of the resistance axis, which is derived from the theories of this martyr, still has a great power to advance this path of dismantling the American order and Establishing Iran's hegemonic supremacy.