نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری مطالعات سیاسی انقلاب اسلامی، گروه علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران
2 استاد گروه علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران
3 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد روابط بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Over the past three decades, we have witnessed the emergence and strengthening of socio-political movements among the nations of the region, especially the Shiites of the Middle East. Considering the internal and external consequences of these movements, their effective role can be seen in the levels of regional and national developments. This article compares the two contemporary Islamist resistance groups, the Palestinian Hamas Resistance Movement and the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Force. Given the current situation in the Middle East, the structure and organization of these two groups in the form of a conceptual device and through comparative study is important. The method of reviewing the present article is descriptive-exploratory and the main question is what are the differences and similarities between the popular mobilization forces and Hamas? In response, it must be acknowledged that the comparison of these two resistance groups clearly shows the understanding of the fundamental and influential recent developments between Iraq and Palestine. and the influence of these groups as the support arms of the Islamic Republic is very important
According to the study and using Alan Thorne's conceptual framework, there are relatively obvious similarities and differences between the three components (generality, opposition or conflict and the principle of identity), so that due to the similarities and differences between each of these two resistance groups, in some cases, differences according to the specific circumstances in which they are placed.
Based on the principle of identity, the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Force Group has been formed with a focus on recruiting popular forces, regardless of ethnicity or religion. The emergence of Takfiri terrorism in the West Asian region has also brought significant parts of western Iraq under the control of ISIS. In such circumstances, the inefficiency of the Iraqi army in the fight against terrorism, as well as the decision of the cabinet during the presidency of Nouri al-Maliki to form a people's force to defend the territorial integrity of Iraq and expel terrorists from the country, and finally the issuance of a fatwa on jihad. The Iraqi supreme authority established the Hashad al-Shaabi base for the presence of various segments of the people in the struggle against ISIL.
Comparing the identities of these two resistance groups, it can be said that the Iraqi popular mobilization resistance group has a Shiite Islamic ideology, and the ideology of the Hamas resistance movement is rooted in the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. Also, the commonalities and differences of these two resistance groups can be expressed as follows; In both groups of resistance, the leading leaders of these currents have been influenced by the Islamic Revolution of Iran and the implementation of these ideas of the Islamic Revolution is evident. The doctrinal and jurisprudential principles of this group, which originated from the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, have a more Islamic aspect.
Both resistance groups entered the arena of struggle in order to create the necessary conditions for the liberation of the country from oppression and aggression. These groups also have the support of the masses.
The two groups of the popular uprising in Iraq and Hamas in Palestine are deeply connected to the Islamic Revolution of Iran, and the growth and influence of these groups as the support arms of the Islamic Republic is very important. The Popular Mobilization Resistance Group and the Hamas Resistance have common foreign enemies, such as the United States, and with the extent of their activities and influence, they sometimes attack their interests with attacks from these countries.
Given the participation of the Hamas resistance movement in the elections and the acquisition of political legitimacy at home and abroad, the official Hamas organization in the Palestinian state structure is more cohesive than the popular mobilization resistance group in Iraq.
Comparing the identities of these two resistance groups, it can be said that the Iraqi popular mobilization resistance group has a Shiite Islamic ideology, and the ideology of the Hamas resistance movement is rooted in the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.
We can also see Hamas' strategy in changing the regional approach and distancing the Hamas movement from Iran in recent years according to its interests. It should be noted that liberation movements, like any other social phenomenon, evolve over time and under the influence of conditions and components.