عنوان مقاله [English]
More than a decade has passed since the concept of smart power to political literature and the sphere of international policy studies. This concept was initially on the agenda of the transformation of power relations at the level of state actors, but due to the growth of the power achievements of non-state actors, the application of this concept expanded. The achievements of non-state actors Hamas and Hezbollah, particularly their deterrence power and success in the 33-day, 22-day, and 12-day wars against the Zionist regime over the past decades, have been considered a turning point for the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Hamas and Hezbollah are two Islamic resistance movements that emerged in the 1980s inspired by the intellectual foundations and ideology of political Islam, Shiite values and the Iranian Islamic Revolution. Hamas in Palestine and Hezbollah in Lebanon, non-governmental actors and regional allies of the Islamic Republic have put their declarative principles on the line in the fight against the Zionist regime and are trying to destroy the Israeli regime and reclaim the rights of the Palestinians from the Zionists. They see lasting resistance as the only way to defeat Israel and the great Western powers in the region Since its inception, the Islamic Republic of Iran has based its foreign policy on hatred of the Israeli regime, opposition to and combating the policy of Western powers, support for liberation movements, especially support for the Palestinian people in the region.
The purpose of this study was to investigate and explain the software and hardware achievements of Hamas and Hezbollah and its impact on Iran's regional position in the Middle East during 2005-2021.Based on this, the research question is, what impact has hamas and Hezbollah's software and hardware achievements had on Iran's regional position in the Middle East?
The present research method is an explanatory method and the conceptual approach of smart power has been used. The method of collecting information and data was also library and internet.
The concept of smart power entered the political literature and international policy studies in the early 20th century. This concept was initially considered by the policy makers and decision makers of the foreign policy of the United States of America; But gradually it was noticed by other governmental and non-governmental actors. Hamas and Hezbollah are two Islamic resistance movements that emerged in the 1980s inspired by the intellectual foundations and ideology of political Islam, Shiite values, and the Islamic Revolution of Iran. Hamas in Palestine and Hezbollah in Lebanon, one of the non-governmental actors of the regional united Islamic Republic, have put their declared principles in the line of struggle against Israel and are seeking the destruction of Israel and the recapture of Palestinian disputes and farms from the hands of the Zionists, and they are the only solution to overcome and Victory over Israel and the great western powers in the region consider resistance and standing stable. From the very beginning, the Islamic Republic of Iran has drawn its foreign policy policy on hatred and aversion to Israel, opposing and fighting the policy of Western powers, supporting liberation movements, especially supporting the Palestinian people in the region.
The Islamic Republic of Iran defined and considered Israel as an illegitimate and occupying regime and the role of Western powers, especially the United States of America, as interventionist actors causing instability in the region. With the revelation of the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic and its support for the Islamic resistance axis of Hamas and Hezbollah, it faced obstacles and pressure from the opposing actors, namely the regional governments of Saudi Arabia, Israel, and the extra-regional government of the United States of America; But what has increased the intensity of concerns and anger of the opposition actors against the Islamic Republic over the past decades, has been the power gains of Hamas and Hezbollah. So that in the past decades, the software and hardware achievements of the two Islamic resistance movements, Hamas and Hezbollah, have expanded. in a way that has surprised even their opponents.
Hamas and Hezbollah are regional allies of the Islamic Republic and Iran supports them. Iran is located in a region that has been subjected to pressures and disruptions from opposing actors. On the other hand, these opposition actors are worried about the growth of the power of non-governmental actors united in the Islamic Republic. Based on this, in this research, while describing and explaining the software and hardware achievements of Hamas and Hezbollah in the region, we will discuss their effects on the regional position of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Middle East.
The findings indicate that the software and hardware achievements of Hamas and Hezbollah as two regionally allied non-governmental actors of the Islamic Republic of Iran had grown, which had a positive impact on Iran's regional position in the Middle East.
Conclusion: The results indicate that the increase in the smart power of Hamas and Hezbollah has increased the influence and bargaining power and ensured security for Iran against opposition actors such as Saudi Arabia, Israel and the United States in the Middle East.
In this article, we discussed the growth of the achievements of two main and powerful Islamic resistance movements, Hamas and Hezbollah, and its impact on Iran's regional position in the Middle East, and we analyzed and evaluated that the Islamic Republic of Iran has not recognized Israel since its inception and considered itself a supporter of the people. Palestine had defined. Hamas and Hezbollah emerged in Palestine and Lebanon, respectively, inspired by the intellectual foundations of political Islam and especially the Islamic Revolution in the 1990s, and drew their vital principles in the front line against Israel and victory against it.
In the past decades, the software and hardware achievements of Hamas and Hezbollah had grown. Regarding the software achievements of Hamas and Hezbollah, we can mention the increase in popularity of these actors in their country and the region. He also mentioned about the hardware achievements of Hamas and Hezbollah, deterrence power, missiles and drones and their victory against Israel in the past decades. Considering that the presence of these actors has a deep strategic importance, especially guaranteeing security for Tehran in the region, without a doubt, any software and hardware growth of the power of Hamas and Hezbollah is beneficial to the Islamic Republic against the regional and extra-regional actors who wanted to contain Iran and their bargaining power and influence. It has promoted Iran in the region and made any peace in the Middle East inevitable without the presence and participation of Tehran.